Is Your Child Malnourished?
by Kelly Dorfman , M.S., Cofounder of DDR
Malnutrition is often associated with the image of a thin, forlorn child with a distended belly. Another kind of malnutrition, with high and empty calories, runs rampant in America, among people who never experience deprivation. Children with developmental delays are especially susceptible to this type of malnutrition because they tend to be picky eaters or may be on restricted diets for the treatment of allergies or autism.
What is high or empty calorie malnutrition?
A person can gain weight eating excessive calories consisting only of bread and french fries, missing the nutrients needed for optimal neurological development. During critical brain development periods, such a diet can cause permanent damage due to lack of essential vitamin and mineral building blocks.
Picky eaters may eat too little food or suffer from empty calorie malnutrition by eating junk foods with excess calories but few nutrients. If their intake is poor over a long enough period, a type of anorexia or growth hormone deﬁciency can develop. Anorexia in developmentally delayed children represents a combination of the inability to sense hunger, tactile defensiveness in the mouth, and malnutrition. Insufﬁcient zinc, vitamin B1 and other nutrients cause decreased taste acuity and poor appetite.
Is your child malnourished?
Does he/she look malnourished? Visual diagnosis, a dying art, tells us that kids in good nutritional shape are vibrant and have good coloring. Professionals often tell concerned parents not to worry as long as a pale, lethargic fussy eater is gaining weight. These well meaning professionals often view parents as overly anxious or poor disciplinarians. Trust your instincts. Children who do not look healthy, and whose diets would not satisfy a healthy adult, are probably malnourished.
Are they eating fresh fruits and vegetables? Yes, children can and should eat vegetables. The fact that many don‘t is not acceptable. Many of the anti-oxidants that support neurological health also protect us from chronic illness, and are found in fresh produce. Poorly nourished children often cannot taste the ﬂavors of fruits and vegetables, which are subtle when compared to artiﬁcially enhanced, heavily salted or sweetened packaged foods. For others the textures, colors and smells of fresh produce may be overwhelming. Work with a speech, occupational or oral motor therapist increases tolerance for dietary variety, improves speech and oral motor ﬂexibility, and supports general health in sensory defensive children.
What can I do until my child starts eating better?
Poor eating and malnutrition become a vicious cycle. Malnutrition impairs taste and appetite, and impaired taste and appetite lower one’s interest in good food. To break this cycle, close the gap between what is needed and what is actually eaten by using nutritional supplements. While whole foods are better, supplements can provide the missing link in a child’s development. When designing a supplement program, be sure to include all nutrients on the accompanying chart. This is a partial list of the most critical additions.
|Nutrients||Function||Under Age 3||Over Age 3|
|Vitamin C||protects against toxins, supports immune system||100-250mg||250-1000mg|
|Vitamin E||detoxification, protects fat-soluble tissue||30-100 IU||60-200 IU|
|BVitamins||growth, repair of neurological function||2-10x RDA||2-10x RDA|
|Zinc||immune function, growth, repair, taste, smell, sexual maturation||5-12mg||12-20mg|
|Calcium||healthy bones and teeth, calms nervous system||900mg||900mg|
|Selenium||mercury displacement||50 mcg||50-150mcg|
|Chromium||blood sugar stability||50 mcg||50-150mcg|
|EFAs||cognition, neurological function, calms nervous system||1tsp flaxseed or
1/2 tsp cod liver oil
|1tsp flaxseed or
1/2 tsp cod liver oil
Contact a nutritionally trained health professional if you have speciﬁc questions regarding your child. Be sure to choose a professional with experience using nutrients with children.[Initially published in New Developments: Volume 6, Number 4 - Spring, 2001]